Elizabeth Spelke

Professor

Department of Psychology
Harvard University
33 Kirkland St.
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone: 617-495-3876
Fax: 617-384-7944
spelke@wjh.harvard.edu

Link to “The Science of Gender and Science” video and transcript.

Link to Elizabeth Spelke’s New Yorker Profile.

Link to Elizabeth Spelke’s New York Times Profile

EDUCATION:

Radcliffe College, 1967-1971. B.A. in Social Relations, 1971.
Yale University, 1972-1973.
Cornell University, 1973-1977. Ph.D. in Psychology, 1978.

HONORS:

Phi Beta Kappa, 1971; Sigma Xi, Cornell University 1978; Fulbright-Hays Senior Research Fellowship, 1983; McCandless Young Scientist Research Award, APA, 1984; John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship, 1989; James McKeen Cattell Fellowship, 1992; Society of Experimental Psychologists, 1993; D. Phil. honoris causa, Umeå University, Sweden, 1993; NIH MERIT award, 1993; American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1997; National Academy of Sciences (USA), 1999; D. Phil. honoris causa, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, 1999; William James Award, Americal Psychological Society, 2000; Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, American Psychological Association, 2000; Ipsen Prize in Neuronal Plasticity, Foundation Ipsen, Paris, 2001; America’s Best in Science and Medicine, Time Magazine, 2001; Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2002; Alumni Award, New Canaan Country School, 2007; D. Phil. honoris causa, University of Paris-Descartes, 2007; Jean Nicod Prize, Ecole Normale Superieure, 2009; Fellow, Cognitive Science Society, 2009; D. Phil. honoris causa, Utrecht University, 2010. Prix La Recherche (with Izard, Pica & Dehaene), 2012. Peter Jusczyk Best Paper Award (with Huang & Snedeker), 2013; National Academy of Sciences Prize in Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, 2014.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS:

Please Note: These electronic articles are posted for individual, noncommericial use to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly work. They are intended for teaching and training purposes only. Articles may not be reposted or disseminated without permission by the copyight holder. Copyright holders retain all rights as indicated within each article.

de Hevia, M. D., Izard, V., Coubart, A., Spelke, E. S., & Streri, A. (in press). Representations of space, time, and number in neonates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1323628111.

Izard, V., Streri, A., & Spelke, E. S. (in press). Towards exact numbers: Understanding exact equality. Cognitive Psychology.

Huang, Y. & Spelke, E. S. (in press). Core knowledge and the emergence of symbols: The case of maps. Journal of Cognition and Development. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2013.784975.

Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E. S., Harris, P. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2014). What do different beliefs tell us? An examination of factual, opinion-based, and religious beliefs. Cognitive Development, 30, 15-29.

Cogsdill, E., Todorov, A., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (Advanced online publication). Inferring character from faces: A developmental study. Psychological Science. doi:10.1177/0956797614523297.

Hyde, D. C., Khanum, S., & Spelke, E. S. (2014). Brief non-symbolic, approximate number practice enhances subsequent exact symbolic arithmetic in children. Cognition, 131, 92-107.

Coubart, A., Izard, V., Spelke, E. S. , Marie, J., & Streri, A. (2014). Dissociation between small and large numerosities in newborn infants. Developmental Science, 17, 11-22.

Skerry, A. E. & Spelke, E. S. (2014). Preverbal infants identify emotional reactions that are incongruent with goal outcomes. Cognition, 130, 204-216.

Izard, V., O’Donnell, E., & Spelke, E. S. (2013). Reading angles in maps. Child Development, 85, 237-249.

Spelke, E. S. (2013). Developmental sources of social divisions. In A. M. Battro, S. Dehaene, & W. J. Singer (Eds.), Neurosciences and the Human Person: New Perspectives on Human Activities, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Scripta Varia, 121. Vatican City.

Skerry, A. E., Carey, S. E., & Spelke, E. S. (2013). First-person action experience reveals sensitivity to action efficiency in prereaching infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 18728–18733.

Mehr S. A., Schachner, A., Katz, R. C., & Spelke, E. S. (2013). Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment. PLOS ONE, 8, e82007.

Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). Patterns of implicit and explicit attitudes in children and adults: Tests in the domain of religion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 864-879.

Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E. S., Harris, P. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). The development of reasoning about beliefs: Fact, preference, and ideology.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 559-565.

Banerjee, K., Haque, O.S., & Spelke, E. S. (2013). Melting lizards and crying mailboxes: Children’s preferential recall of minimally counterintuitive concepts. Cognitive Science, 37, 1251-1289.

Olson, K. R., Heberlein, A. S., Kensinger, E., Burrows, C., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). The role of forgetting in undermining good intentions. PLOS ONE, 8, e79091.

de Hevia, M. D. & Spelke, E. S. (2013). Not all continuous dimernsions map equally: Number-Brightness mapping in human infants. PLOS ONE, 8, e81241.

Powell, L. J., & Spelke, E. S. (2013). Preverbal infants expect members of social groups to act alike. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, E3965-E3972

Spaepen, E., Coppola, M., Flaherty, M., Spelke, E., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2013). Generating a lexicon without a language model: Do gestures for number count? Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 496-505.

Lee, S. A., Vallortigara, G., Flore, M., Spelke, E. S., & Sovrano, V. A. (2013). Navigation by environmental geometry: The use of zebrafish as a model. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 216, 3693-3699.

Dillon, M. R., Huang, Y., & Spelke, E. S. (2013). Core foundations of abstract geometry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 14191–14195.

Piazza, M., Pica, P., Izard, V., Spelke, E. S. & Dehaene, S. (2013). Education enhances the acuity of the non-verbal approximate number system. Psychological Science, 24, 1037-1043.

Spelke, E. S., Bernier, E. P., & Skerry, A. E. (2013). Core Social Cognition. In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the Social World: What Infants, Children, and Other Species Can Teach Us (pp. 11-16). Oxford University Press.

Huang, Y., Spelke, E. S., & Snedeker, J. (2013). What exactly do number words mean? Language Learning and Development, 9, 105–129.

McCrink, K., Spelke, E. S., Dehaene, S., & Pica, P. (2013). Non-Symbolic Halving in an Amazonian Indigene Group. Developmental Science, 6, 451-462.

Winkler-Rhoades, N., Carey, S. & Spelke, E. S. (2013). Two-year-old children interpret abstract, purely geometric maps. Developmental Science, 16, 365-376.

Shutts, K., Roben, C. K. P., &  Spelke, E. S. (2013). Children’s use of social categories in thinking about people and social relationships. Journal of Cognition and Development, 1435-62.

Lee, S. A., Winkler-Rhoades, N. & Spelke, E. S. (2012). Spontaneous reorientation is guided by perceived surface distance.  PLoS-ONE, 7, e51373.

Spelke, E. S., & Lee, S. A. (2012). Core Systems of Geometry in Animal Minds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B. 367, 2784-93.

Hyde, D. C., & Spelke, E. S. (2012). Spatiotemporal dynamics of processing nonsymbolic number: An event-related potential source localization study. Human Brain Mapping, 33, 2189-2203.

Kinzler, K. D., Dupoux, E., & Spelke, E. S.  (2012). “Native” objects and collaborators:  Infants’ object choices and acts of giving reflect favor for native over foreign speakers.  Journal of Cognition and Development, 13, 67-81.

Lee, S. A., Spelke, E. S., Vallortigara, G. (2012). Chicks, like children, spontaneously reorient by three-dimensional environmental geometry, not by image matching. Biology Letters, 8, 492-494.

Kinzler, K. D., Shutts, K., & Spelke, E. S. (2012). Language-based social preferences among children in South Africa.  Language Learning and Development, 8, 215–232.

de Hevia, M. D., Vanderslice, M., & Spelke, E. S. (2012). Cross-dimensional mapping of number, length and brightness by preschool children. PLoS ONE, 7, e35530.

Beier, J. S., & Spelke, E. S. (2012). Infants’ developing understanding of social gaze. Child Development, 83, 486-496.

Lee, S. A., Sovrano, V. A., & Spelke E. S. (2012). Navigation as a source of geometric knowledge: Young children’s use of length, angle, distance, and direction in a reorientation task. Cognition, 123, 144–161.

Spelke, E. S. (2011). Core systems and the growth of human knowledge: Natural geometry. In A. M. Battro, S. Dehaene, & W. J. Singer (Eds.), The Proceedings of the Working Group on Human Neuroplasticity and Education: Vol. 117. Human Neuroplasticity and Education (pp. 73-99). Vatican City: The Pontifical Academy of Sciences.

Shutts, K., Kinzler, K. D., Katz, R. C., Tredoux, C., & Spelke, E. S. (2011). Race preferences in children: Insights from South Africa. Developmental Science, 14, 1283-1291.

Bonawitz, E. B., Shafto, P., Gweon, H., Goodman, N., Spelke, E. & Schulz, L. E. (2011). The double-edged sword of pedagogy: Teaching limits children’s spontaneous exploration and discovery. Cognition, 120, 322-330.

Izard, V., Pica, P., Spelke, E. S., & Dehaene, S. (2011). Flexible intuitions of Euclidean geometry in an Amazonian indigene group. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 9782-9787.

Olson, K. R., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2011). Children’s responses to group-based inequalities: Perpetuation and rectification. Social Cognition, 29, 270-287.

Dilks, D. D., Julian, J. B., Kubilius, J., Spelke, E. S., & Kanwisher, N. (2011). Mirror-image sensitivity and invariance in object and scene processing pathways. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 11305-11312.

Shusterman, A., Lee, S. A., & Spelke, E. S. (2011). Cognitive effects of language on human navigation. Cognition, 120, 186-201.

Spelke, E. S., Gilmore, C. K., & McCarthy, S. (2011). Kindergarten children’s sensitivity to geometry in maps. Developmental Science, 14, 809-821.

Spelke, E. S. (2011). Natural number and natural geometry. In E. Brannon & S. Dehaene (Eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain: Searching for the Foundations of Mathematical Thought (pp. 287-317). Attention & Performance XXIV, Oxford University Press.

Izard, V., Pica, P., Dehaene, S., Hinchey, D., & Spelke, E. S. (2011). Geometry as a universal mental construction. In E. Brannon & S. Dehaene (Eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain: Searching for the Foundations of Mathematical Thought (pp. 319-332). Attention & Performance XXIV, Oxford University Press.

Hyde, D. C., Winkler-Rhoades, N., Lee, S. A., Izard, V., Shapiro, K. A., & Spelke, E. S. (2011). Spatial and numerical abilities without a complete natural language. Neuropsychologia, 49, 924-936.

Hyde, D. C., & Spelke, E. S. (2011). Neural signatures of number processing in human infants: Evidence for two core systems underlying numerical cognition. Developmental Science, 14, 360-371.

Kinzler, K. D., & Spelke, E. S. (2011). Do infants show social preferences for people differing in race? Cognition, 119, 1-9.

Spaepen, E., Coppola, M., Spelke, E. S., Carey, S., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2011). Number without a language model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 3163-3168.

Lee, S. A., & Spelke, E. S. (2011). Young children reorient by computing layout geometry, not by matching images of the environment. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 192-198.

Spelke, E. S. (2010). Innateness, choice, and language. In J. Bricmont & J. Franck (Eds.), Chomsky Notebook (pp. 203-210). New York: Columbia University Press. [Originally published in French: Spelke, E. S. (2007). Innéisme, liberté et langage. In J. Bricmont & J. Franck (Eds.), Cahier nº 88: Noam Chomsky (pp. 197-201). Paris: L'Herne.]

McCrink, K., & Spelke, E. S. (2010). Core multiplication in childhood. Cognition, 116, 204-216.

Huang, Y. T., Spelke, E. S., & Snedeker, J. (2010). When is four far more than three? Children’s generalization of newly acquired number words. Psychological Science, 21, 600-606.

de Hevia, M. D. & Spelke, E. S. (2010). Number-space mapping in human infants. Psychological Science, 21, 653-660.

Lee, S. A., & Spelke, E. S. (2010). Two systems of spatial representation underlying navigation. Experimental Brain Research, 206, 179-188.

Pyers, J. E., Shusterman, A., Senghas, A., Spelke, E. S., & Emmorey, K. (2010). Evidence from an emerging sign language reveals that language supports spatial cognition.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 12116-12120.

Lee, S. A., & Spelke, E. S. (2010). A modular geometric mechanism for reorientation in children. Cognitive Psychology, 61, 152-176.

Spelke, E. S., Lee, S. A., & Izard, V. (2010). Beyond core knowledge: Natural geometry. Cognitive Science, 34, 863-884.

Gilmore, C. K., McCarthy, S. E., & Spelke, E. S. (2010). Non-symbolic arithmetic abilities and mathematics achievement in the first year of formal schooling. Cognition, 115, 394-406.

Shutts, K., Banaji, M. R., & Spelke, E. S. (2010). Social categories guide young children’s preferences for novel objects. Developmental Science, 13, 599-610.

Spelke, E.S. (2009). Forum: Elizabeth S. Spelke. In M. Tomasello, Why We Cooperate (pp. 149-172). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Izard, V. & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Development of sensitivity to geometry in visual forms. Human Evolution, 24, 213-248.

Shutts, K., Ornkloo, H., von Hofsten, C., Keen, R., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Young children’s representations of spatial and functional relations between objects. Child Development, 80, 1612-1627.

Shutts, K., Kinzler, K. D., McKee, C. B., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Social information guides infants’ selection of foods. Journal of Cognition and Development, 10, 1-17.

Kinzler, K. D., Shutts, K., De Jesus, J., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Accent trumps race in guiding children’s social preferences. Social Cognition, 27, 623-634.

Fagard, J., Spelke, E. S., von Hofsten, C. (2009). Reaching and grasping a moving object in 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old infants: Laterality and performance. Infant Behavior & Development, 32, 137-146.

Shutts, K., Condry, K. F., Santos, L. R., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Core knowledge and its limits: The domain of food. Cognition, 112, 120-140.

Platt, M. L., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). What can developmental and comparative cognitive neuroscience tell us about the adult human brain? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 19, 1-5.

Platt, M. L., & Spelke, E. S. (Eds.). (2009). Cognitive neuroscience [February Issue]. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 19(1).

Izard, V., Sann, C., Spelke, E. S. & Streri, A. (2009). Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 10382-10385.

Hyde, D. C., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). All numbers are not equal: An electrophysiological investigation of small and large number representations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1039-1053.

Barth, H., Baron, A., Spelke, E., & Carey, S. (2009). Children’s multiplicative transformations of discrete and continuous quantities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103, 441-454.

de Hevia, M. D., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Spontaneous mapping of number and space in adults and young children. Cognition, 110, 198-207.

Dehaene, S., Pica, P., Izard, V., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Response to comment on log or linear? Distinct intuitions of the number scale in Western and Amazonian indigine cultures. Science, 323, 38.

Shutts, K., Markson, L., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). The developmental origins of animal and artifact concepts. In B. Hood & L. Santos (Eds.), The Origins of Object Knowledge (pp. 189-210). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hespos, S. J., Gredeback, G., von Hofsten, C., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Occlusion is hard: Comparing predictive reaching for visible and hidden objects in infants and adults. Cognitive Science, 33, 1483–1502.

Spelke, E. S., & Kinzler, K. D. (2009). Innateness, learning and rationality. Child Development Perspectives, 3, 96-98.

Spelke, E. S., & Ellison, K. (2009) Gender, math and science. In C.H. Sommers (Ed.), The Science of Women in Science. Washington, DC:AEI Publications.

Lee, S. A., & Spelke, E. S. (2008). Children’s use of geometry for reorientation. Developmental Science, 11, 743-749.

Barth, H., Beckmann, L., & Spelke, E. (2008). Nonsymbolic, approximate arithmetic in children: Abstract addition prior to instruction. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1466-1477.

Dehaene, S., Izard, V., Spelke, E. S., Pica, P. (2008). Log or linear? Distinct intuitions of the number scale in Western and Amazonian cultures. Science, 320, 1217-1220.

Olson, K. R., & Spelke, E. S. (2008). Foundations of cooperation in young children. Cognition, 108, 222-231.

Izard, V., Pica, P., Spelke, E. S., & Dehaene, S. (2008). Exact equality and successor function: Two key concepts on the path towards understanding exact numbers. Philosophical Psychology, 21, 491-505.

Gilmore, C. K., & Spelke, E. S. (2008). Children’s understanding of the relationship between addition and subtraction. Cognition, 107, 932-945.

Shusterman, A. B., Lee, S.A., & Spelke, E. S. (2008). Young children’s spontaneous use of geometry in maps. Developmental Science. 11, F1-F7.

Spelke, E. S. (2008). Effects of music instruction on developing cognitive systems at the foundations of mathematics and science. Learning, Arts and the Brain: The Dana Consortium Report on Arts and Cognition. NY/Washington D.C.: Dana Press.

Condry, K. F., & Spelke, E. S. (2008). The development of language and abstract concepts: The case of natural number. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 22-38.

Olson, K. R., Dunham, Y., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. (2008). Judgments of the lucky across development and culture. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 757-776.

Cappelletti, M., Barth, H., Fregni, F., Spelke, E. S., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2007). rTMS over the intraparietal sulcus disrupts numerosity processing. Experimental Brain Research, 179, 631-642.

Ganea, P. A., Shutts, K., Spelke, E. S., & DeLoache, J. S. (2007). Thinking of things unseen: Infants’ use of language to update mental representations. Psychological Science, 18, 734-739.

Gilmore, C. K., McCarthy, S. E., & Spelke, E. S. (2007). Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction. Nature, 447, 589-591.

Kinzler, K. D., Dupoux, E., & Spelke, E. S. (2007). The native language of social cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 12577-12580.

Kinzler, K. D., & Spelke, E. S. (2007). Core systems in human cognition. Progress in Brain Research, 164, 257-264.

Spaepen, E. U. & Spelke, E. S. (2007). Will any doll do? Twelve-month-olds’ reasoning about goal objects. Cognitive Psychology, 54, 133-154.

Spelke, E. S., & Kinzler, K. D. (2007). Core knowledge. Developmental Science, 10, 89-96.

Barth, H., La Mont, K., Lipton, J., Dehaene, S., Kanwisher, N., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Non-symbolic arithmetic in adults and young children. Cognition, 98, 199-222.

Dehaene, S., Izard, V., Pica, P,. & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Core knowledge of geometry in an Amazonian indigene group. Science, 311, 381-384.

Dehaene, S., Izard, V., Pica, P., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Examining knowledge of geometry: Response to Wulff and Delson. Science, 312, 1310.

Olson, K., Banaji, M., Dweck, C., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Children’s evaluations of lucky and unlucky people and their social groups. Psychological Science, 17, 845-846.

Lee, S. A., Shusterman, A., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Reorientation and landmark-guided search by young children: Evidence for two systems. Psychological Science, 17, 577-582.

Lipton, J. S., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Preschool children master the logic of number word meanings. Cognition, 98, B57-B66.

Markson, L., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Infants’ rapid learning about self-propelled objects. Infancy, 9, 45-71.

Shutts, K., Keen, R., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Object boundaries influence toddlers’ performance in a search task. Developmental Science, 9, 97-107.

Spelke, E. S., & Grace, A. D. (2006). Abilities, motives, and personal styles: Reply to Ackerman, Dai & Gridley. American Psychologist, 61, 725-726.

Spelke, E. S., & Grace, A. D. (2006). Sex, math, and science. In S. Ceci & W. Williams (Eds.), Why aren’t more women in science? Top gender researchers debate the evidence, Washington, DC: APA Publications.

Barth, H., La Mont, K., Lipton, J., & Spelke, E. S. (2005). Abstract number and arithmetic in young children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 14116-14121.

Lipton, J. S., & Spelke, E. S. (2005). Preschool children’s mapping of number words to nonsymbolic numerosities. Child Development, 76, 978-988.

Shusterman, A., & Spelke, E. S. (2005). Language and the development of spatial reasoning. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence, & S. Stich (Eds.), The innate mind: Structure and contents, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 89-106.

Spelke, E. S. (2005). Sex differences in intrinsic aptitude for mathematics and science: A critical review. American Psychologist, 60, 950-958.

Wood, J. N., & Spelke, E. S. (2005). Chronometric studies of numerical cognition in five-month-old infants. Cognition, 97(1), 23-39.

Wood, J. N., & Spelke, E. S. (2005). Infants’ enumeration of actions: Numerical discrimination and its signature limits. Developmental Science, 8(2), 173-181.

Xu, F., Spelke, E. S., & Goddard, S. (2005). Number sense in human infants. Developmental Science, 8(1), 88-101.

Feigenson, L., Dehaene, S. & Spelke, E. S. (2004). Core systems of number. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(10), 307-314.

Feigenson, L., Dehaene, S., & Spelke, E. S. (2004). Origins and endpoints of the core systems of number: Reply to Fias and Verguts. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(10), 448-449.

Hauser, M. D., & Spelke, E. S. (2004). Evolutionary and developmental foundations of human knowledge: A case study of mathematics. In M. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, Vol. 3. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hespos, S. J., & Spelke, E. S. (2004). Conceptual precursors to language. Nature, 430, 453-456.

Lipton, J. S., & Spelke, E. S. (2004). Discrimination of large and small numerosities by human infants. Infancy, 5(3), 271-290.

Molina, M., Van de Walle, G. A., Condry, K. & Spelke, E. S. (2004). The animate-inanimate distinction in infancy: Developing sensitivity to constraints on human actions. Journal of Cognition and Development, 5(4), 399-426.

Shutts, K., & Spelke, E. S. (2004). Straddling the perception-conception boundary. Developmental Science, 7(5), 507-511.

Streri, A., Gentaz, E., Spelke, E., & Van de Walle, G. A. (2004). Infants’ haptic perception of object unity in rotating displays. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A(3), 523-538.

Spelke, E. S. (2004). Core knowledge. In N. Kanwisher & J. Duncan (Eds.), Attention and Performance: Functional neuroimaging of visual cognition (Vol 20, pp. 29-56). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Barth, H., Kanwisher, N., & Spelke, E. (2003). The construction of large number representations in adults. Cognition, 86(3), 201-221.

Hauser, M. D., Tsao, F., Garcia, P., & Spelke, E. S. (2003). Evolutionary foundations of number: spontaneous representation of numerical magnitudes by cotton-top tamarins. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, B 270: 1441-1446.

Lemer, C., Dehaene, S., Spelke, E., & Cohen, L. (2003). Approximate quantities and exact number words: Dissociable systems. Neuropsychologia, 41(14), 1942-1958.

Lipton, J. S., & Spelke, E. S. (2003). Origins of number sense: Large number discrimination in human infants. Psychological Science, 14(5), 396-401.

Smith, W. C., Johnson, S. C. & Spelke, E. S. (2003). Motion and edge sensitivity in perception of object unity. Cognitive Psychology, 46, 31-64.

Spelke, E. S. (2003). Developing knowledge of space: Core systems and new combinations. In S. M. Kosslyn & A. Galaburda (Eds.), Languages of the Brain. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

Spelke, E. S. (2003). Gibson’s work ‘an extended reply to Helmholtz.’ American Psychological Society observer, 16(4).

Spelke, E. S. (2003). What makes us smart? Core knowledge and natural language. In D. Gentner and S. Goldin-Meadow (Eds.), Language in Mind: Advances in the Investigation of Language and Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wang, R. F., & Spelke, E. S. (2003). Comparative approaches to human navigation. In K. Jeffrey (Ed.), The Neurobiology of Spatial Behavior. Oxford University Press.

Feigenson, L., Carey, S., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). Infants’ discrimination of number vs. continuous extent. Cognitive Psychology, 44, 33-66.

Phillips, A., Wellman, H., & Spelke, E. (2002). Infants’ ability to connect gaze and emotional expression as cues to intentional action. Cognition, 85(1), 53-78.

Santos, L. R., Hauser, M. D., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). Domain-specific knowledge in human children and non-human primates: Artifact and food kinds. In M. Bekoff (Ed.), The Cognitive Animal. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Spelke, E. S. (2002). Developmental neuroimaging: A developmental psychologist looks ahead. Developmental Science, 5(3), 392-396.

Spelke, E. S., & Hespos, S. J. (2002). Conceptual development in infancy: The case of containment. In N. L. Stein, P. J. Bauer, & M. Rabinowitch (Eds.), Representation, Memory, and Development: Essays in honor of Jean Mandler. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wang, R. F., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). Human spatial representation: Insights from animals. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(9), 376-382.

Gouteux, S., & Spelke, E. S. (2001). Children’s use of geometry and landmarks to reorient in an open space. Cognition, 81(2). 119-148.

Munakata, Y., Santos, L., R. Spelke, E. S., Hauser, M. D., & O’Reilly, R. C. (2001). Visual representation in the wild: How rhesus monkeys parse objects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 44-58.

Santos, L. R., Hauser, M. D., & Spelke, E. S. (2001). Recognition and categorization of biologically significant objects by rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta): The domain of food. Cognition, 82(2). 127-155.

Spelke, E. S., & Hespos, S. J. (2001). Continuity, competence, and the object concept. In E. Dupoux (Ed.), Language, brain, and cognitive development: Essays in honor of Jacques Mehler (pp. 325-340). Cambridge, MA: Bradford/MIT Press.

Spelke, E. S., & von Hofsten, C. (2001). Predictive reaching for occluded objects by 6-month-old infants. Journal of Cognition and Development, 2(3), 261-281.

Spelke, E. S., & Tsivkin, S. (2001). Initial knowledge and conceptual change: Space and number. In M. Bowerman & S. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Spelke, E. S., & Tsivkin, S. (2001). Language and number: A bilingual training study. Cognition, 78, 45-88.

Condry, K. F., Smith, W. C., & Spelke, E. S. (2000). Development of perceptual organization. In F. Lacerda & M. Heiman (Eds.), Emerging Cognitive Abilities in Early Infancy. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

von Hofsten, C., Feng, Q., & Spelke, E. S. (2000). Object representation and predictive action in infancy. Developmental Science, 3, 193-205.

Spelke, E. S. (2000). Core knowledge. American Psychologist, 55, 1233-1243.

Spelke, E. S. (2000). Perceptual development is an intrinsic process. In R. Atkinson et al (Eds.), Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology, p. 186. Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. (Reprinted in Smith, Bem, and Nolen-Hoeksema (Eds.), Fundamentals of Psychology, p. 150. Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers.)

Wang, R. F., & Spelke, E. S. (2000). Updating egocentric representations in human navigation. Cognition, 77(3), 215-250.

Xu, F., & Spelke, E. S. (2000). Large number discrimination in 6-month-old infants. Cognition, 74, B1-B11.

Dehaene, S., Spelke, E. S., Pinel, P., Stanescu, R., & Tsivkin, S. (1999). Sources of mathematical thinking: Behavioral and brain-imaging evidence. Science, 284, 970-974.

Hermer-Vasquez, L., Spelke, E. S., & Katsnelson, A. S. (1999). Sources of flexibility in human cognition: Dual-task studies of space and language. Cognitive Psychology, 39, 3-36.

Jusczyk, P. W., Johnson, S. P., Spelke, E. S., & Kennedy, L. J. (1999). Synchronous change and perception of object unity: Evidence from adults and infants. Cognition, 71, 257-288.

Kim, I. K., & Spelke, E. S. (1999). Perception and understanding of effects of gravity and inertia on object motion. Developmental Science, 2(3), 339-362.

Spelke, E. S. (1999). Infant cognition. In R.A. Wilson and F. Keil (Eds.), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Spelke, E. S. (1999). Innateness, learning, and the development of object representation. Developmental Science, 2, 145-148.

Spelke, E. S. (1999). Unity and diversity in knowledge. In E. Winograd, R. Fivush & W. Hirst (Eds.), Ecological approaches to cognition: Essays in honor of Ulric Neisser. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Spelke, E. S., & Dehaene, S. (1999). Biological foundations of numerical thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 365-366.

Wang, R. F., Hermer-Vazquez, L., & Spelke, E. S. (1999). Mechanisms of reorientation and object localization by children: A comparison with rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 113, 475-485.

von Hofsten, C., Vishton, P., Spelke, E. S., Feng, Q., & Rosander, K. (1998). Predictive action in infancy: Tracking and reaching for moving objects. Cognition, 76(3), 255-285.

Spelke, E. S. (1998). Nativism, empiricism, and the origins of knowledge. Infant Behavior and Development, 21(2), 181-200.

Spelke, E. S. (1998). Nature, nurture, and development. In J. Hochberg and J. E. Cutting (Eds.), Handbook of perception and cognition, 2nd ed: Perception and cognition at century’s end. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Spelke, E. S., & Newport, E. (1998). Nativism, empiricism, and the development of knowledge. In R. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, 5th ed., Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development. NY: Wiley.

Van de Walle, G., Rubenstein, J., & Spelke, E. S. (1998). Infant sensitivity to shadow motions. Cognitive Development, 13, 387-419.

Carey, S., & Spelke, E. S. (1996). Science and core knowledge. Philosophy of Science, 63(4), 515-533.

Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. S. (1996). Modularity and development: The case of spatial reorientation. Cognition, 61, 195-232.

Spelke, E. S., & Hermer, L. (1996). Early cognitive development: Objects and space. In R. Gelman & T. Au (Eds.), Handbook of perception and cognition, Vol. 1: Perceptual and cognitive development. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Van de Walle, G., & Spelke, E. S. (1996). Spatiotemporal integration and object perception in infancy. Child Development, 67, 2621-2640.

Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. S. (1995). L’Homme raisonne-t-il mieux que les animaux? La Recherche, 26, 78-79.

Spelke, E. S., Gutheil, G., & Van de Walle, G. (1995). The development of object perception. In D. Osherson (Ed.), Invitation to cognitive science, 2nd ed., Vol. 2: Visual cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Spelke, E. S., Kestenbaum, R., Simons, D., & Wein, D. (1995). Spatiotemporal continuity, smoothness of motion and object identity in infancy. The British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13, 113-142.

Spelke, E. S., Phillips, A. T., & Woodward, A. L. (1995). Infants’ knowledge of object motion and human action. In D. Sperber, D. Premack, A. Premack, & (Eds.), Causal cognition: A multidisciplinary debate. Oxford University Press.

Spelke, E. S., Vishton, P., & von Hofsten, C. (1995). Object perception, object-directed action, and physical knowledge in infancy. In M. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Carey, S., & Spelke, E. S. (1994). Domain-specific knowledge and conceptual change. In L. Hirschfeld & S. Gelman (Eds.), Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture, pp. 169-200. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. S. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature, 370, 57-59.

Slater, A., Johnson, S. P., Kellman, P. J., & Spelke, E. S. (1994). The role of three-dimensional depth cues in infants’ perception of partly occluded objects. Early Development and Parenting, 3, 187-191.

Spelke, E. S. (1994). Initial knowledge: Six suggestions. Cognition, 50, 431-445. (Reprinted in J. Mehler and S. Franck (Eds.) Cognition on Cognition, pp. 433-448. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.)

Spelke, E. S. (1994). Developing knowledge: Diverse perspectives and common themes. In A. Vyt, H. Bloch and M. H. Bornstein (Eds.), Early child development in the French tradition: Contributions from current research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Spelke, E. S. (1994). Preferential looking and intermodal perception in infancy: Comment on Lewkowicz (1992). Infant Behavior and Development, 17, 285-288.

Spelke, E. S., Katz, G., Purcell, S. E., Ehrlich, S. M., & Breinlinger, K. (1994). Early knowledge of object motion: Continuity and inertia. Cognition, 51, 131-176.

Spelke, E. S., Breinlinger, K., Jacobson, K., & Phillips, A. (1993). Gestalt relations and object perception: A developmental study. Perception, 22, 1483-1501.

Spelke, E. S., & Van de Walle, G. (1993). Perceiving and reasoning about objects: Insights from infants. In N. Eilan, R. McCarthy, & W. Brewer (Eds.), Spatial representation. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Streri, A., Spelke, E. S., & Rameix, E. (1993). Modality-specific and amodal aspects of object perception in infancy: The case of active touch. Cognition, 47, 251-279.

Van de Walle, G., & Spelke, E. S. (1993). L’intégration spatio-temporelle dans la perception des objects chez le bébé. Psychologie Française, 38, 75-83.

Woodward, A., Phillips, A., & Spelke, E. S. (1993).Infants’ expectations about the motions of inanimate vs. animate objects. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kim, I. K., & Spelke, E. S. (1992). Infants’ sensitivity to effects of gravity on visible object motion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 385-393.

Soja, N. N., Carey, S., & Spelke, E. S. (1992). Perception, ontology, and word meaning. Cognition, 45, 101-107.

Spelke, E. S., Breinlinger, K., Macomber, J., & Jacobson, K. (1992). Origins of knowledge. Psychological Review, 99, 605-632.

Soja, N., Carey, S., & Spelke, E. S. (1991). Ontological categories guide young children’s inductions of word meaning: Object terms and substance terms. Cognition,38, 179-211. (Reprinted in A. I. Goldman (Ed.) Readings in philosophy and cognitive science, pp. 461-480.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.)

Spelke, E. S. (1991). Physical knowledge in infancy: Reflections on Piaget’s theory. In S. Carey & R. Gelman (Eds.), Epigenesis of mind: Studies in biology and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Starkey, P., Spelke, E. S., & Gelman, R. (1991). Toward a comparative psychology of number. Cognition, 39, 171-172.

Spelke, E. S. (1990). Cognitive capacities of human infants: Conceptions of object motion. In G. Edelman (Ed.), Signal and sense: Local and global order in the nervous system. NY: Wiley.

Spelke, E. S. (1990). Principles of object perception. Cognitive Science, 14, 29-56.

Spelke, E. S. (1990). Origins of visual knowledge. In D. Osherson et al. (Eds.) An invitation to cognitive science, Vol. 2. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Reprinted in A. I. Goldman (Ed.) Readings in philosophy and cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.)

Starkey, P., Spelke, E. S., & Gelman, R. (1990). Numerical abstraction by human infants. Cognition, 36, 97-128.

Spelke, E. S. (1989). Early cognitive functioning. In C. Von Euler (Ed.), Neurobiology of early infant behaviour. UK: The Macmillan Press.

Spelke, E. S., von Hofsten, C., & Kestenbaum, R. (1989). Object perception and object-directed reaching in infancy: Interaction of spatial and kinetic information for object boundaries. Developmental Psychology, 25, 185-196.

Streri, A., & Spelke, E. S. (1989). Effects of motion and figural goodness on haptic object perception in infancy. Child Development, 60, 1111-1125.

Landau, B., & Spelke, E. S. (1988). Geometric complexity and object search in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 24, 512-521.

Spelke, E. S. (1988). The origins of physical knowledge. In L. Weiskrantz (Ed.), Thought without language. Oxford, UK: Oxford Press.

Spelke, E. S. (1988). Where knowledge begins. Physical conceptions in infancy. In H. Azuma (Ed.), IXth Biennial Meetings of International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development. Tokyo, Japan: The Center of Developmental Education and Research.

Spelke, E. S. (1988). Where perceiving ends and thinking begins: The apprehension of objects in infancy. In A. Yonas (Ed.), Perceptual development in infancy. Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (Vol. 20). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Assoc.

Streri, A., & Spelke, E. S. (1988). Haptic perception of objects in infancy. Cognitive Psychology, 20, 1-23.

Kellman, P. J., Gleitman, H., & Spelke, E. S. (1987). Object and observer motion in the perception of objects by infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 586-593.

Kestenbaum, R., Termine, N., & Spelke, E. S. (1987). Perception of objects and object boundaries by three-month-old infants. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 367-383.

Spelke, E. S. (1987). The development of intermodal perception. In L. B. Cohen & P. Salapatek (Eds.), Handbook of infant perception. New York: Academic Press.

Termine, N., Hrynick, T., Kestenbaum, R., Gleitman, H., & Spelke, E. S. (1987). Perceptual completion of surfaces in infancy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 524-532.

Kellman, P. J., Spelke, E. S., & Short, K. (1986). Infant perception of object unity from translatory motion in depth and vertical translation. Child Development, 57, 72-86.

Spelke, E. S., & von Hofsten, C. (1986). Do infants reach for objects? A reply to Stiles-Davis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 98-100.

Spelke, E. S., & Kestenbaum, R. (1986). Les origines du concept d’objet. Psychologie Française, 31, 67-72.

Baillargeon, R., Spelke, E. S., & Wasserman, S. (1985). Object permanence in five-month-old infants. Cognition, 20, 191-208.

von Hofsten, C., & Spelke, E. S. (1985). Object perception and object-directed reaching in infancy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 198-212.

Jones, R., Spelke, E. S., & Alley, T. (1985). Perceptual development. In W. H. Warren, Jr., & R. E. Shaw (Eds.), Persistence and change. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Landau, B., & Spelke, E. S. (1985). Spatial knowledge and its manifestations. In H. Wellman (Ed.), Children’s searching: The development of search skills and spatial representation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Spelke, E. S. (1985). Perception of unity, persistence, and identity: Thoughts on infants’ conceptions of objects. In J. Mehler & R. Fox (Eds.), Neonate cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Spelke, E. S. (1985). Preferential looking methods as tools for the study of cognition in infancy. In G. Gottlieb & N. Krasnegor (Eds.), Measurement of audition and vision in the first year of postnatal life (pp. 323-363). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Starkey, P., Gelman, R., & Spelke, E. S. (1985). Technical comment: Detection of number or numerousness by human infants. Science, 228, 1222.

Landau, B., Spelke, E. S., & Gleitman, H. (1984). Spatial knowledge in a young blind child. Cognition, 16, 225-260.

Gelman, R., Spelke, E. S., & Meck, E. (1983). What preschoolers know about animate and inanimate objects. In D. Rogers & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), The acquisition of symbolic skills. New York: Plenum.

Gibson, E. J., & Spelke, E. S. (1983). The development of perception. In P. Mussen (series Ed.) & J. H. Flavell & E. Markman (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol 3. New York: Wiley.

Kellman, P. J., & Spelke, E. S. (1983). Perception of partly occluded objects in infancy. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 483-524.

Spelke, E. S. (1983). Cognition in infancy. MIT Occasional Papers in Cognitive Science. No. 23.

Spelke, E. S. (1983). Constraints on intermodal perception. In L. S. Liben (Ed.), Piaget and the foundations of knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Spelke, E. S., Born, W. S., & Chu, F. (1983). Perception of moving, sounding objects by four-month-old infants. Perception, 12, 719-732.

Starkey, P., Spelke, E. S., & Gelman, R. (1983). Detection of intermodal numerical correspondences by human infants. Science, 222, 179-181.

Spelke, E. S. (1982). Perceptual knowledge of objects in infancy. In J. Mehler, M. Garrett & E. Walker (Eds.), Perspectives on mental representation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gelman, R., & Spelke, E. S. (1981). The development of thoughts about animate and inanimate objects: Implications for research in social cognition. In J. H. Flavell & L. Ross (Eds.), The development of social cognition in children. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Landau, B., Gleitman, H., & Spelke, E. S. (1981). Spatial knowledge and geometrical representation in a child blind from birth. Science, 213, 1275-1278.

Neisser, U., Hirst, W. C., & Spelke, E. S. (1981). Limited capacity theories and the notion of automaticity: Reply to Lucas and Bub. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 499-500.

Spelke, E. S. (1981). The infant’s acquisition of knowledge of bimodally specified events. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 31, 279-299.

Spelke, E. S., & Cortelyou, A. (1981). Perceptual aspects of social knowing: Looking and listening in infancy. In M. E. Lamb & L. R. Sherrod (Eds.), Infant social cognition: Empirical and theoretical considerations. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hirst, W. C., Spelke, E. S., Reaves, C. C., Caharach, G., & Neisser, U. (1980). Dividing attention without alternation or automaticity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 98-117.

Spelke, E. S. (1980). A sampling of infant cognition: A review of John Oates (Ed.) Early cognitive development. Contemporary Psychology, 25, 549-550.

Spelke, E. S. (1979). Exploring audible and visible events in infancy. In A. D. Pick (Ed.), Perception and its development: A tribute to Eleanor J. Gibson. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Spelke, E. S. (1979). Perceiving bimodally specified events in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 15, 626-636.

Spelke, E. S., & Owsley, C. J. (1979). Intermodal exploration and knowledge in infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 2, 13-27.

Hirst, W. C., Neisser, U., & Spelke, E. S. (1978). Divided attention. Human Nature, 1, 54-61.

Spelke, E. S. (1976). Infants’ intermodal perception of events. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 553-560.

Spelke, E. S., Hirst, W., & Neisser, U. (1976). Skills of divided attention. Cognition, 4, 215-230.

Kotelchuck, M., Zelazo, P., Kagan, J., & Spelke, E. S. (1975). Infant reaction to parental separations when left with familiar and unfamiliar adults. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 126, 225-262.

Lester, B., Kotelchuck, M., Spelke, E. S., Sellers, M. J., & Klein, R. (1974). Separation protest in Guatemalan infants: Cross-cultural and cognitive findings. Developmental Psychology, 10, 79-85.

Spelke, E. S., Zelazo, P., Kagan, J., & Kotelchuck, M. (1973). Father interaction and separation protest. Developmental Psychology, 9, 83-90.

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